Contributing Factors of Dyspareunia

Typically Dyspareunia is due to a physical or medical condition.

DyspareuniaVestibulodynia/Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome is the most common cause of Dyspareunia in premenopausal women, affecting 15 % of women in this age group.

The defining criteria of Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome are pain with attempted penetration, pain at points along the vestibule (vaginal entry) with touch and erythema (redness) of varying degrees.

Other recognized physical/medical conditions contributing to Dyspareunia, include:

  • Ovarian Cysts
  • Urinary Tract Infection/Interstitial Cystitis
  • Yeast infection
  • Vulvodynia
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • Genital/Pelvic Tumors
  • Vaginal Atrophy
  • Vaginal Dryness/ Inadequate Lubrication
  • Postmenopausal decreases in estrogen
  • Childbirth trauma
  • Vulvar Cancer
  • Vaginal Infections
  • STIs
  • Skin conditions, such as Eczema/Psoriasis
  • Post menopausal decreases in estrogen
  • Genital surgeries or procedures

In some cases Dyspareunia can lead to secondary vaginismus, when, even after the diminishment or healing of the physical condition that previously caused the pain, the woman's subconscious mind and body continue to anticipate pain and resist intercourse by tightening the pelvic floor muscles.


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